Once led by Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and now Nicolás Maduro, the Bolivarian Alliance can be best understood as a transnational effort to achieve 21st-century socialism in the Americas.
It has also fomented unrest in those Latin American countries pursuing free market and democratic reforms.
That same month, activists and instigators tied to Venezuela and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) – a communist guerrilla movement in Latin America and ally of the Maduro regime – caused so much violence in Ecuador that President Lenin Moreno had to leave the capital.
Americans then watched as outspoken Maduro supporters fomented unrest in Miami in June 2020.
In Bolivia, riots that followed the resignation of former President Evo Morales last year were accompanied by insurgent tactics by Evo and his supporters to try and block food from entering urban cities.